What is portfolio diversification?

What is portfolio diversification?

Diversification is the practice of spreading your investments so that your exposure to one type of asset is limited. This practice is designed to help reduce volatility in your portfolio over time.

One of the keys to successful investing is learning to balance your comfort level with risk versus your time horizon. Invest your retirement nest egg too conservatively at a young age and you run the risk that the growth rate of your investments will not keep pace with inflation. Conversely, if you invest too aggressively when you’re older, you could leave your savings exposed to market volatility, which could erode the value of your assets at an age when you have fewer opportunities to recover. your losses.

One way to balance risk and reward in your investment portfolio is to diversify your assets. This strategy has many complex iterations, but at its core is the simple idea of ​​spreading your portfolio across multiple asset classes. Diversification can help mitigate risk and volatility in your portfolio, potentially reducing the number and severity of stomach-churning highs and lows. Remember that diversification does not guarantee a profit or guarantee against losses.

The 4 main components of a diversified portfolio

Domestic stocks

Stocks are the most aggressive part of your portfolio and offer the potential for higher long-term growth. However, this greater growth potential comes with greater risk, especially in the short term. Since stocks are generally more volatile than other types of assets, your investment in a stock could be worth less if and when you decide to sell it.


Most bonds provide regular interest income and are generally considered less volatile than stocks. They can also act as a cushion against the unpredictable ups and downs of the stock market, as they often behave differently from stocks. Investors who focus more on safety than growth often favor US Treasuries or other high-quality bonds, while reducing their exposure to equities. These investors may have to accept lower long-term yields because many bonds, especially high-quality issues, typically don’t offer as high yields as long-term stocks. However, note that some fixed income investments,

Short-term investments

These include money market funds, short-term CDs (certificates of deposit), and derivatives such as futures and options. Money market funds are conservative investments that offer stability and easy access to your money, ideal for those looking to preserve capital. In exchange for this level of security, money market funds typically offer lower returns than bond funds or individual bonds. Although money market funds are considered safer and more conservative, however, they are not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) like many CDs.* However, when you invest in CDs,

You can also consider investing in high-risk strategies such as binary options to diversify your portfolio. In short, when a binary option expires, the trader’s profit or loss is automatically deposited or debited to their account. This implies that the buyer of a binary option will either earn a dividend or lose their entire investment in the trade – there is no other choice.

Additional components of a diversified portfolio

Sector funds

Although these invest in stocks, sector funds, as their name suggests, focus on a particular segment of the economy. They can be valuable tools for investors looking for opportunities in different phases of the business cycle.

Commodity-focused funds

While only the most experienced investors should invest in commodities, adding equity funds focused on commodity-intensive industries to your portfolio, such as oil and gas, mining, and resources natural sources, can provide a good hedge against inflation.

Real estate funds

Real estate funds, including real estate investment trusts (REITs), can also play a role in diversifying your portfolio and providing some protection against inflation risk.

Asset Allocation Funds

For investors who don’t have the time or expertise to build a diversified portfolio, asset allocation funds can be an effective single-fund strategy. Fidelity manages a number of different types of these funds, including funds that are managed to a specific target date, funds that are managed to maintain a specific asset allocation, funds that are managed to generate income, and funds that are managed in anticipation of specific events. results, such as inflation.

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